Accountability in WASH: A reference guide for programming

Sustainability of WASH interventions is far below what is needed to achieve universal access to water and sanitation services. Improved governance, with clear roles and responsibilities of all actors involved, is critical for improving the sustainability of service delivery in the long run.

Young indian woman drinking water with her hands underneath a water stream

Accountable actors of the service delivery framework provide and demand better water governance for better services. Supporting accountability within the service delivery framework is about improving the quality of relationships between stakeholders. Accountable States, service providers and users assume responsibility and answer for their actions — all key elements for breaking institutional inertia and making the institutional arrangements and systems for service delivery work for all.

The Reference Guide for Programming contains guidance on existing mechanisms promoting accountability, illustrated by examples of how they are currently being operationalized in different contexts. The aim of the document is to provide External Support Agencies with structured and concise information that can help programming support to accountability-related actions.


UNDP-SIWI Water Governance Facility & UNICEF, 2015. WASH and Accountability: A Reference Guide for Programming. Accountability for Sustainability Partnership: UNDP-SIWI Water Governance Facility and UNICEF. Stockholm and New York: SIWI and UNICEF.